Apr 20, (a) KITAB-UL-HIND was written by AL-BIRUNI in Arabic language KITAB-UL- HIND is simple and lucid and a voluminous text divided into 80 chapters on. Sep 30, Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic. Kitab Tarikh Al-Hind and Aims of Writing it. Al-Biruni’s Kitab-ul-Hind is simple and lucid. It is divided. were incorporated in Mahmud’s Indian army; and Al- beruni—what Geography. Kitab-almanshurdt. marching to Hind or India proper we start from the.

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Al-Biruni – Wikipedia

Sec- ondly, in the period ranging from tomany writings related to medicine, pharma- cology, toxicology and philosophy were studied and translated. Thus, globally, most data came from oral interactions and the circulation of written documents, but eventually much less from direct observation.

Moreover, he adds that Hindus wrote from the left to the right like the Greeks. Pihu Rani 8 November at They live near the villages and towns of tge four castes, but outside them.

At first, between andastronomical works e. Retrieved August 20, Also he describe how he interacted with Kashmir by giving account of circulation of written documents between the conquered and unconquered Kashmir world. He describes the educated as monotheistic, believing that God is one, eternal, and omnipotent and eschewing all forms of idol worship. Bruni remains one of the illustrious historiographers retaining objectivity inrecording the facts as he saw or experienced.

He was inspired by the arguments offered by Indian scholars who believed earth must be globular in shape, which is the only way to fully explain the difference in daylight hours by latitude, seasons and earth’s relative wl with moon and stars.

His work was perhaps the first major exposition of Hindu thought and life by an Islamic scholar and it sheds great light on the then Hindu society which then was facing a challenge to its very existence from Muslim invaders. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, which promoted astronomy and encouraged all scholars to work on their research. He was equally well versed in the mathematical, astronomic, physical and natural sciences and also distinguished himself as a geographer and historian, chronologist and linguist and as an impartial observer of customs and creeds.


The relationship has been characterised as tumultuous, with Al-Biruni generally feeling neglected and devoid of any state support. He also notes the religious beliefs of peoples of India.

But, his details are brief and mostly just list rulers without referring to their real names. My book is nothing but a simple historic record jl facts. This extract underlines the fact that Indian devotees were able to travel and that the Kashmir Valley was less impenetrable than it appears at first.

The Kitabul’ Hind-a Medieval Reality Check | This and That

The salient features of Indian society as mentioned by Alberuni in Kitab al-Hind. Moreover the rare pieces of evidence of his observations concern sites in Pakistan — mainly Punjab — but not in present-day India. He also takes notice of ancient Indian traditions and writes about them in his book.

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One could expect that neruni observation would constitute the main method of Biruni with regard to the conquered land. He was familiar with translations and adaptations berunni Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit texts into Arabic. Though his views bind Hindus need to be examined in the overall context of his work, there is no gainsaying the fact that eleventh century Hindu society was moribund, stagnant and inward ktab for a variety of reasons.

He deduced its existence on the basis of his accurate estimations of the Earth’s circumference and Afro-Eurasia ‘s size, which he found spanned only two-fifths of the Earth’s circumference, and his discovery of the concept of specific gravityfrom which he deduced that the geological processes that gave rise to Eurasia must’ve also given rise to lands in the vast ocean between Asia and Europe.


At the same time, Al-Biruni was also critical of Indian scribes who he believed carelessly corrupted Indian documents while making copies of older documents.

They allow nails to grow long, glorifying their idleness, since they do not use them for any work.

Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Over time, Al-Biruni won the welcome of Hindu scholars.

Through The Eyes Of Travellers

An imaginary rendition of Al Biruni on a Soviet post stamp. Apart from that, intellectual interactions were equally encouraged by different dynasties of India. He also describes for the first time, the network of roads spreading out from Kanauj into all four directions, however, his knowledge of the peninsular India was meagre, for it was mainly based on the information provided by earlier Arab geographers who may or may not have visited the country.

Between the Vaisya and Sudra, there is no very great distance. You are commenting using your WordPress.

Though his work is mainly concerned with the religious and intellectual aspects, he writes about many other things too but his silence on topics of trade, industry, agriculture, art etc is difficult to understand.

Beruno was kind enough to check my English. SachauChronology, xivxviin the suburb birun of Gind, capital of Khwarizm Over time, Al-Biruni won the welcome of Hindu scholars. He condemns the hypocrisy of Brahmin Scholars, who inspite of knowing the scientific explanation of various natural phenomenon preferred to mislead the masses and keep them steeped in ignorance and supersitious.

Bali is still Hindu predominantly].

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